AIDS – GENERAL

Ayoade F, Cotelingam J, Chandranesan ASJ.Disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex infection presenting with disseminated intravascular coagulation in an AIDS patient. J. Invest. Med. High Impact Case Rep.2017:1-4 DOI: 10-1177/23247096117740904.

Chin DP, Hopewell P, Stone EN, Nassos PS, Ostroff SM, et al .Mycobacterium avium complex in the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract and the risk of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J. Infect. Dis. 1994; 169:289-295.

Gordin FM, Cohn DL, Sullam PM, Schoenfelder JR, Wynne BA, Horsburgh CR Jr. Early manifestations of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease: a prospective evaluation. J. Infect. Dis. 1997; 176:126-132.

Greene JB, Sidhu GS, Lewin S, Levine JF, Masur H, Simberkoff MS, Nicholas P, Good R.C, Zolla-Pazner S.B, et al. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare a cause of disseminated life-threatening infection in homosexuals and drug abusers. Ann. Intern. Med. 1982; 97:539-546.

Hassell M, French MA. Mycobacterium avium infection and immune restoration disease after highly active antiretroviral therapy in a patient with HIV and normal CD4+ counts. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2001; 20:889-891.

Hocqueloux L, Lesprit P, Herrmann JL, La Blanchardiere A, Zagdanski AM, Decazes JM, Modai J. Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease without dissemination in HIV-infected patients. Chest. 1998; 113:542-548.

Horsburgh CR. Mycobacterium avium complex infection in the acquired immuno- deficiency syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 1991; 324:1332-1338.

Horsburgh CR Jr, Gettings J, Alexander LN, Lennox JL. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, 1985-2000. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2001; 33:1938-1943.

Horsburgh CR, Selik RM. The epidemiology of disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1989; 139:4-7.

Kalayjian RC, Toossi Z, Tomashefski JF Jr., Carey JT, Ross JA, Tomford JW, Blinkhorn RJ Jr. Pulmonary disease due to infection by Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with AIDS. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1995; 20:1186-1194.

Nightingale SD, Byrd LT, Southern PM, Jockusch JD, Cal SX, Wynne BA. Incidence of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex bacteremia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. J. Infect. Dis. 1992; 165:1082-1085..

Slutsky AM, Arbeit RD, Barber TW, Rich J, von Reyn CF, Pieciak W, Barlow MA, Maslow NJ. Polyclonal infections due to Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with AIDS detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of sequential clinical isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1994; 32:1773-1778.

Torriani FJ, McCutchan JA, Bozzette SA, Grafe MR, Havlir DV. Autopsy findings in AIDS patients with Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia. J. Infect. Dis. 1994; 170:1601-1605.

Zakowski P, Fligiel S, Berlin OGW, Johnson BL Jr. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection in homosexual men dying of acquired immunodeficiency. JAMA. 1982; 248:2980-2982.

AIDS – TREATMENT OF DISSEMINATED MAC OR ITS PREVENTION (CALLED PROPHYLAXIS)

Benson CA, Williams PL, Currier JS, Holland F, Mahon LF, MacGrego RR. Inderlied CB, Flexner C, Neidig J et al. A prospective, randomized trial examining the efficacy and safety of clarithromycin in combination with ethambutol, rifabutin, or both for the treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2003; 37:1234-1243.

Chaisson RE, Benson CA, Dube MP, Heifets LB, Korvick JA, Elkin S, Smith T, Craft JC, Sattler FR. Clarithromycin therapy for bacteremic Mycobacterium avium complex disease. A randomized, double-blind, dose-ranging study in patients with AIDS. Ann. Intern. Med. 1994; 121:905-911.

Chaisson RE, Keiser P, Pierce M, Fessel WJ, Ruskin J, Lahart C, Benson CA, Meek K, Siepman N, Craft JC. Clarithromycin and ethambutol with or without clofazimine for the treatment of bacteremic Mycobacterium avium complex disease in patients with HIV infection. AIDS 1997; 11:311-317.

Cohn DL, Fisher EJ, Peng GT, Hodges JS, Chesnut J, Child CC, Franchino B, Gibert C, El-Sadr W, et al. A prospective randomized trial of four three-drug regimens in the treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease in AIDS patients: excess mortality associated with high-dose clarithromycin. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1999; 29:125-133.

Collins LF, Clement ME, Stout JE. Incidence, long-term outcomes, and healthcare utilization of patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex from 1992-2015. Open Forum Infect. Dis.2017:1-7, DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofx120.

Dautzenberg B, Castellani P, Pellegrin JL, Vittecoq D. Truffot-Pernot C, Pirotta N, Sassclla D. Early bactericidal activity of rifabutin versus that of placebo in treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS patients. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1996;40:1722-1725.

El-Sadr WM, Burman WJ, Grant LB, Matts JP, Hafner R, Crane L, Zeh D, Gallagher B, Mannheimer SB, et al. Discontinuation of prophylaxis against Mycobacterium avium complex disease in HIV-infected patients who have a response to antiretroviral therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 2000; 342:1085-1092

Gordin FM, Sullam PM, Shafran SD, Cohn DL, Wynne B, Paxton L, Perry K, Horsburgh CR Jr. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of rifabutin added to a regimen of clarithromycin and ethambutol for treatment of disseminated infection with Mycobacteriumavium complex. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1999; 28:1080-1085.

Nannini EC, Keating M, Binstock P, Samonis G, Kontoyiannis DP: Successful treatment of refractory disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection with the addition of linezolid and mefloquine. J. Infect. 2002; 44:201-203.

Nightingale SD, Cameron DW, Gordin FM, Sullam PM, Cohn DL, Chaisson LE, Eron PD, Sparti B, Bihari DL, Kaufman JJ, Stern DD, Pearce WG, Weinberg A, LaMarca, Siegal FP. Two controlled trials of rifabutin prophylaxis against Mycobacterium avium complex infections in AIDS. N. Engl .J.Med. 1993;329:828-833.

Oldfield EC, Fessel WJ, Dunne MW, Dickinson G, Wallace MR, Byrne W, Chung R, Wagner KF, Paparello SF, et al. Once weekly azithromycin therapy for prevention of Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with AIDS: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1998; 26:611-619.

Pierce M, Crampton S, Henry D, Heifets L, LaMarca A, Montecalvo M, Wormser GP, Jablonowski H, Jemsek J, at al. A randomized trial of clarithromycin as prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 1996; 335:384-391.

Shafran SD, Singer J, Zarowny DP, Phillips DP, Salit I, Walmsley SL, Fong IW, et al. A comparison of two regimens for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS: rifabutin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin versus rifampin, ethambutol, clofazimine and ciprofloxacin. N. Engl. J. Med. 1996; 335:377-383.

Sullam PM, Gordin FM,Wynne BA. Efficacy of rifabutin in the treatment of disseminated infection due to Mycobacterium avium complex. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1994; 19:84-86.

Ward TT, Rimland D, Kauffman C, Huycke M, Evans TG, Heifets L. Randomized, open-label trial of azithromycin plus ethambutol vs. clarithromycin plus ethambutol as therapy for Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1998; 27:1278-1285.

DISSEMINATED MAC, NON-AIDS

Horsburgh CR, Jr., Mason UG, Farhi DC, Iseman MD. Disseminated infection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. A report of 13 cases and a review of the literature. Medicine. 1985; 64:36-48.

AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY (ATS) STATEMENTS ON DIAGNOSIS/THERAPY

Griffith DE, Aksamit T, Brown-Elliott BA, Catanzaro A, Daley C, Gordin F, Holland SM, Horsburgh R, Huitt G, Iademarco MF, Iseman M, Olivier K, Ruoss S, von Reyn CF,  Wallace Jr. RJ, Winthrop K.  An official ATS/IDSA statement:  Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases.  American Thoracic Society Statement.  Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2007;175:367-416.

Wallace RJ Jr., Cook JL, Glassroth J, Griffith DE, Olivier KN, Gordin F:  American Thoracic Society Statement: Diagnosis and treatment of disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria.  Am. Respir. Crit. Care Med.  1997; 156:S1-S25.

BRONCHIECTASIS

Chalmers, J. D., and S. H. Chotirmall. Bronchiectasis: new therapies and new perspectives. The Lancet. 2018; Doi.10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30053-5.

Fiel SB. Bronchiectasis: the changing clinical scenario. J. Respir. Dis. 2000; 21:666-681.

Fujita J, Ohtsuki Y, Shigeto E, Suemitsu I, Yamadori I, Bandoh S, Shiode M, Nishimura K, Hirayama T, Matsushima T, Fukunaga H, Ishida T. Pathological findings of bronchiectases caused by Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex. Respir. Med. 2003; 97: 933-938.

Gonçalves JMF, Gonzãlez JR.Lady Windermere Syndrome: Does it occur only in women? Arch. Bronconeumol.2016; 52(10):538-539.

Ho P, Chan K, Ip MSM, et al. The effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection on clinical parameters in steady-state bronchiectasis. Chest. 1998; 114:1594-1598.

Hogan PE, Koelsch T, Daley CL, Kasperbauer, SH. A woman with a 15-year history of bronchiectasis and recurrent nontuberculous Mycobacterium pulmonary disease. Ann. Am. Thorac. Soc. 2018; 15:380-382.

O’Donnell AE. Bronchiectasis update. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 2018; 31:194-198.

Pasteur MC, Helliwell SM, Houghton SJ, et al. An investigation into causative factors in patients with bronchiectasis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2000; 162:1277-1284.

Wallace Jr. RJ, Brown-Elliott BA, McNulty S, Philley JV, Killingley J, Wilson RW, York DS, Shepherd S, Griffith, DE. Macrolide/azalide therapy for nodular-bronchiectatic Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Chest. 2014; 146:276-282.

Wilson CB, Jones PW, O’Leary CJ, et al. Effect of sputum bacteriology on the quality of life in patients with bronchiectasis. Eur. Respir. J. 1997; 10:1754-1760.

PULMONARY MAC – EVIDENCE FOR INFECTION WITH MULTIPLE TYPES OF MAC

Colombo RE, Hill SC, Claypool RJ, Holland SM, Olivier KN. Familial clustering of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. Chest.2010; 137:629-634.

Kikuchi T, Kobashi Y, Hirano T, Tode N, Santoso A, Tamada T, Fujimura S, Mitsuhashi Y, Honda Y, Nukiwa T, Kaku M, Watanabe A, Ichinose M.Mycobacterium avium genotype is associated with the therapeutic response to lung infection. Clin. Microbiol. Infect.2014; 20:256-262.

Kobashi Y, Abe M, Mouri K, ObaseY, Kato Y, Oka M. Relationship between clinical efficacy for pulmonary MAC and drug-sensitivity test for isolated MAC in recent 6-year period. J. Infect. Chemother.2012; 18:436-443.

KohWJ, Jeong B-H, Jeon K, Lee NY, Lee KS, Woo SY, Shin SJ, Kwon OJ. Clinical significance of differentiation between Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare in M. avium complex lung disease. Chest.2012; 10:1378.

Wallace RJ Jr.,  Zhang Y,  Brown BA,  Dawson D,  Murphy DT,  Wilson R, Griffith DE: Polyclonal  Mycobacterium    avium   complex    infections   in   patients   with   nodular bronchiectasis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1998; 158:1235-1244.

Wallace RJ Jr, Zhang Y, Brown-Elliott BA, Yakrus MA, Wilson RW, Mann L, Couch L, Girard WM, Griffith DE. Repeat positive cultures in Mycobacterium intracellulare lung disease after macrolide therapy represent new infections in patients with nodular bronchiectasis. J. Infect. Dis. 2002; 186:266-273.

CYSTIC FIBROSIS

Ebert DL, Olivier KN. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in the setting of cystic fibrosis. Clin. Chest Med. 2002; 23:655-663.

Fauroux B, Delaisi B, Clément A, Saizou C, Moissenet D, Truffot-Pernot C, Tournier G, Vu Thien H. Mycobacterial lung disease in cystic fibrosis: A prospective study. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 1997; 16:354-358.

Floto RA, Olivier KN, Saiman L, Daley CL, Herrmann J-L, Nick JA, Noone PG, Bilton D, Corris P, Gibson RL, Hempstead SE, Koetz K, Sabadosa KA, Sermet-Gaudelus I, Smyth AR, van Ingen J, Wallace RJ, Winthrop KL, Marshall BC, Haworth CS. US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus recommendations for the management of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in individuals with cystic fibrosis. Thorax.2016; 71:88-90.

Hauser AR, Jain M, Bar-Meir M, McColley SA.Clinical significance of microbial infection and adaption in cystic fibrosis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev.2011; 24:29-70.

Hjelte L, Petrini B, Kallenius G, et al. Prospective study of mycobacterial infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Thorax. 1990; 45:397-400.

Kilby JM, Gilligan PH, Yankaskas JR, et al. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Chest. 1992; 102:70-75.

Kinney JS, Little BJ, Yolken RH, et al. Mycobacterium avium complex in a patient with cystic fibrosis: Disease vs. colonization. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 1989; 393-396.

LiPumaJJ. The changing microbial epidemiology in cystic fibrosis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev.2010; 23:299-323.

Oliver A, Maiz L, Canton R, et al. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients with cystic fibrosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2001; 32:1298-1303.

Olivier KN, Weber DJ, Wallace RJ Jr., Faiz AR, Lee JH, Zhang Y, Brown-Elliot BA, Handler A, Wilson RW, Schechter MS, Edwards LJ, Chakraborti S, Knowles MR. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in Cystic Fibrosis Study Group. Nontuberculous mycobacteria. I: Multicenter prevalence study in Cystic Fibrosis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2003; 167:828-834

Olivier KN, Weber DJ, Lee JH, Handler A, Tudor G, Molina PL, Tomashefski J, Knowles MR. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Cystic Fibrosis Study Group. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria. II: Nested – cohort study of impact on cystic fibrosis lung disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2003; 167:835-840.

Olivier KN, Yankaskas JR, Knowles MR. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis. Semin. Repir. Infect. 1996; 11:272-284.

Pinto-Powell R, Olivier KN, Marsh BJ, et al. Skin testing to identify infection with Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with cystic fibrosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1996; 22:560-562.

Roux A-L, Catherinot E, Ripoll F, Soismier N, Macheras E, Ravilly S, Bellis G, Vibet M-A, Le Roux E, Lemonnier L, Gutierrez C, Vincent V, Fauroux B, Rottman M, Guillemot D, Gaillard J-L,Herrman J-L for the OMA Group.Multicenter study of prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients with cystic fibrosis in France. J. Clin. Microbiol.2009; 47:4124-4128.

Sermet-Gaudelus I, Le Bourgeois M, Pierre-Audigier C, Offredo C, Guillemot D, Halley S, Akous-Koffi C, Vincent V, Silvadon-Tardy V, Ferroni A, Berche P, Scheinmann P, Lenoir G, Gaillard J-L.Mycobacterium abscessus and children with cystic fibrosis. Emerg. Infect. Dis.2003; 9:1587-1591.

Smith MJ, Efthimiou J, Hodson ME, et al. Mycobacterial isolations in young adults with cystic fibrosis. Thorax. 1984; 39:369-375.

Tomashefski JF, Stern RC, Demko CA, et al. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in cystic fibrosis: An autopsy study. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1996; 154:523-528.

Torrens JK, Dawkins P, Conway SP, et al. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in cystic fibrosis. Thorax. 1998; 53:182-185.

Whittier S, Hopfer RL, Knowles MR, Gilligan PH. Improved recovery of mycobacteria from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1993; 31:861-864.

DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF PULMONARY MAC

Alffenaar,J-WC, van Ingen J.Treatment of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex: a great leap forward. J. Antimicrob. Chemother.2017; 72:Suppl 2:ii1-ii2.

Brown-Elliott BA, Nash KA, Wallace Jr. RJ. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, drug resistance mechanisms, and therapy of infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria. Clin. Microbiol. Rev.2012; 25:545-582.

Brown-Elliott BA, Philley JV, Benwill JL, Wallace Jr.RJ. Current opinions in the treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria in non-cystic fibrosis patients: Mycobacterium abscessus group, Mycobacterium avium complex, and Mycobacteria kansasii. Curr. Treat. Options Infect. Dis.2014; DOI 10.1007/s40506-014-0032-2.

French AL, Benator DA, Gordin FM. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. Med. Clin. North Amer. 1997; 81:361-379.

Griffith DE, Adjemian J, Brown-Elliott BA, Prevots DR, Philley JV, Olivier KN, Wallace Jr. RJ. Cure not possible, by definition. Reply: Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2015; 192:1256-1257.

GriffithDE, Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace Jr. RJ.Hit the road, MAC, and don’t you come back no more. Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med.2015; 191:1222-1224.

Huang JH, Kao PN, Adi V, Ruoss SJ: Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare pulmonary infection in HIV-negative patients without pre-existing lung disease: diagnostic and management limitations. Chest. 1999; 115:1033-1040.

Kobashi Y, Abe M, Mouri K, Obase Y, Kato Y, Oka M. Relationship between clinical efficacy for pulmonary MAC and drug-sensitivity test for isolated MAC in recent 6-year period. J. Infect. Chemother.2012; 18:436-443.

Koh WJ, Jeong B-H, Jeon K, Lee NY, Lee KS, Woo SY, Shin SJ, Kwon OJ.Clinical significance of the differentiation between Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare in M. avium complex lung disease. Chest. 2012; 142:1482-1488.

Koh W-J, Moon SM, Kim S-Y, Woo M-A, Kim S, Jhun BW, Park HY, Jeon K, Huh HJ, Ki C-S, Lee NY, Chung MJ, Lee KS, Shin SJ, Daley CL, Kim J, Kwon OJ.Outcomes of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease based on clinical phenotype. Eur. Respir. J.2017; 50: 1602503.

Lande L, George J, Plush T. Mycobacterium avium: new epidemiology and management concepts complex pulmonary disease: new epidemiology and management concepts. Cur. Opin. Infect. Dis. 2018; DOI: 10.1097/QCO.00000000000437, PMID 29346118.

Olivier KN, Shaw PA, Glaser TS, Bhattacharyya D, Fleshner M, Brewer CC, Zalewski CK, Folio LR, Siegelman JR, Shallom S, Park IK, Sampaio EP, Zelazny AM, Holland SM, Prevots DR. Inhaled amikacin for treatment of refractory pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. Ann. Am. Thorac. Soc. 2014; 11:30-35.v

Park TY, Chong S, Jung J-W, Park IW, Choi BW, Lim C, Lee CU, Kim YS, Choi HW, Choi JC.Natural course of the nodular bronchiectatic form of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease: Long-term radiologic change without treatment. PLoS ONE2017; 12: e0185774, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0185774.

Philley JV, Griffith DE. Management of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease. Semin. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2013; 34:135-142.

Prince DS, Peterson DD, Steiner RM, Gottlieb JE, Scott R, Israel HL, Figueroa WG, Fish JE: Infection with Mycobacterium avium complex in patients without predisposing conditions. N. Engl. J. Med. 1989; 321:863-868.

Reich. JM, Johnson RE. Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease presenting as an isolated lingular or middle lobe pattern: the Lady Windermere Syndrome. Chest. 1992; 101:1605-1609.v

Stone AB, Schelonka RL, Drehner DM, McMahon DP, Ascher DP. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex in non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected pediatric patients. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 1982;11:960-964.

Tsukamura, M. Diagnosis of disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. Chest. 1991; 99:667-669.

van IngenJ, Egelund EF, Levin A, Totten SE, Boeree MJ, Mouton JW, Aarnoutse RE, Heifets LB, Peloquin CA, Daley CL. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease treatment. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.2012; 186:559-565.

von Reyn CF, Williams DE, Horsburgh CR, Jaeger AS, Marsh BJ, Haslov K, Magnusson M. Dual skin testing with Mycobacterium avium sensitin and purified protein derivative to discriminate pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex from pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Infect. Dis. 1998; 177:730-736.

Wallace Jr., R. J. Brown-Elliott BA, McNulty S, Philley JV, Killingley J, Wilson RW, York DS, Shepherd S, Griffith DE. Macrolide/azalide therapy for nodular-bronchiectatic Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Chest. 2014; 146:276-282.

Yeager H Jr., Raleigh JW. Pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium intracellulare. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1973; 108:547-552.

DRUGS

Alexander DC, Vasireddy R, Vasireddy S, Philley JV, Brown-Elliott BA, Perry BJ, Griffith DE, Benwill JL, Cameron ADS, Wallace Jr. RJ. Emergence of mmpT5 variants during bedaquiline treatment of Mycobacterium intracellulare lung disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2017; 55:574-584.

Brown BA, Wallace Jr. RJ, Onyi G. Activities of clarithromycin against eight slowly growing species of nontuberculous mycobacteria, determined by using a broth microdilution MIC system. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1992; 36:1987-1990.

Brown-Elliott BA, Crist CJ, Mann LB, Wilson RW, Wallace Jr RJ: In vitro activity of linezolid against slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2003; 47:1736-1738.

Brown-Elliott BA, Iakhiaeva E, Griffith DE, Woods GL, Stout JE, Wolfe CR, Turenne CY, Wallace Jr. RJ.In vitro activity of amikacin against isolates of Mycobacterium avium complex with proposed MIC breakpoints and finding of a 16S rRNA gene mutation in treated isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol.2013; 51:3389-3394, ERRATUM 2014; 52:1311.

Brown-Elliott BA, Nash KA, Wallace Jr. RJ. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, drug resistance mechanisms, and therapy of infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria. Clin. Microbiol. Rev.2012; 25:545-582.

Brown-Elliott BA, Philley JV, Griffith DE, Thakkar F, Wallace Jr. RJ.In vitro susceptibility testing of bedaquiline against Mycobacterium avium complex. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.2017; 61:e01798-16.

Gay JD, DeYoung DR, Roberts GD. In vitro activities of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium chelonei, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium kansasii. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1984; 26:94-96.

Heifets L, Mor N, Vanderkolk J. Mycobacterium avium strains resistant to clarithromycin and azithromycin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1993; 37:2364-2370.

Olivier KN, Griffith DE, Eagle G, McGinnis II JP, Micioni L, Liu K, Daley CL, Winthrop KL, Ruoss S, Addrizzo-Harris DJ, Flume PA, Dorgan D, Salathe M, Brown-Elliott BA, Gupta R, Wallace Jr. RJ. Randomized trial of liposomal amikacin for inhalation in nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2017; 195:814-823.

Peloquin CA, Berning SE, Nitta AT, Simone PM, Goble M, Huitt GA, Iseman MD, Cook JL, Curan-Everett D. Aminoglycoside toxicity: Daily versus thrice-weekly dosing for treatment of mycobacterial diseases. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2004; 38:1538-1544.

Philley JV, Wallace Jr. RJ, Benwill JL, Taskar V, Brown-Elliott BA, Thakkar F, Aksamit TR, Griffith DE. Preliminary results of bedaquiline as salvage therapy for patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease. Chest.2015; 148:499-506.

van Ingen J, Egelund EF, Levin A, Totten SE, Boeree MJ, Mouton JW, Aarnoutse RE, Heifets LB, Peloquin CA, Daley CL. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease treatment. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.2012; 186:559-565.

Wallace Jr. RJ, Brown BA, Griffith DE, Girard WM, Tanaka K. Reduced serum levels of clarithromycin in patients treated with multidrug regimens including rifampin or rifabutin for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection. J. Infect. Dis. 1995; 171:747-750.

Wallace Jr. RJ, Griffith DE. Antimycobacterial agents. In: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 17th Edition, A. S. Fauci, D. L. Kasper, D. L. Long, E. Braunwald, S. L. Hauser, J. L. Jameson, J. Loscalzo, eds. McGraw Hill, 2008; 161:1032-1038.

Woodley CL, Kilburn JO. In vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to a spiro-piperidyl rifamycin. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1982; 126:586-587.

DRUG RESISTANCE

Alexander DC, Vasireddy R, Vasireddy S, Philley JV, Brown-Elliott BA, Perry BJ, Griffith DE, Benwill JL, Cameron ADS, Wallace Jr. RJ. Emergence of mmpT5 variants during bedaquiline treatment of Mycobacterium intracellulare lung disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2017; 55:574-584.

Boyle DP, Zembower TR, Qi C. Relapse versus reinfection of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease. Ann. Am. Thorac. Soc.2016; 13:1956-1961.

Brown-Elliott BA, Iakhiaeva E, Griffith DE, Woods GL, Stout JE, Wolfe CR, Turenne CY, Wallace Jr. RJ.In vitro activity of amikacin against isolates of Mycobacterium avium complex with proposed MIC breakpoints and finding of a 16S rRNA gene mutation in treated isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol.2013; 51:3389-3394, ERRATUM 2014; 52:1311.

Griffith DE. Macrolide-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex: “I feel like I’ve been here before”. Ann. Am. Thorac. Soc.2016; 13:1881-1882.

Griffith DE, Brown-Elliott BA, Langsjoen B, Zhang Y, Pan X, Girard W, Nelson K, Caccitolo J, Alvarez J, Shepherd S, Wilson R, Graviss EA, Wallace Jr. RJ. Clinical and molecular analysis of macrolide resistance in Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.2006; 174:928-934.

Meier A, Heifets L, Wallace RJ Jr., Zhang Y, Brown BA, Sander P Bottger EC. Molecular mechanisms of clarithromycin resistance in Mycobacterium avium: observation of multiple 23S rDNA mutations in clonal population. J. Infect. Dis. 1996; 174:354-360.

Meier A, Kirschner P, Burkhardt S, Steingrube VA, Brown BA, Wallace RJ Jr., Bottger E. Identification of mutations in 23S rRNA gene of clarithromycin-resistant Mycobacterium intracellulare. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1994; 38:381-384.

Moon SM, Park HY, Kim S-Y, Jhun BW, Lee H, Jeon K, Kim DH, Huh HJ, Ki C-S, Lee NY, Kim HK, Choi YS, Kim J, Lee S-H, Kim CK, Shin SJ, Daley CL, Koh W-J.Clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and resistance mutations associated with macrolide-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2016; 60:6758-6765.

Olivier, K. N., Shaw PA, Glaser TS, Bhattacharyya D, Fleshner M, Brewer CC, Zalewski CK, Folio LR, Siegelman JR, Shallom S, Park IK, Sampaio EP, Zelazny AM, Holland SM, Prevots DR. 2014. Inhaled amikacin for treatment of refractory pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. Ann. Am. Thorac. Soc. 11:30-35.

Philley JV, Wallace Jr. RJ, Benwill JL, Taskar V, Brown-Elliott BA, Thakkar F, Aksamit TR, Griffith DE. Preliminary results of bedaquiline as salvage therapy for patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease. Chest.2015; 148:499-506.

DRUG SIDE EFFECTS

Brown BA, Griffith DE, Girard WM, Levin J, Wallace RJ Jr. Relationship of adverse events to serum drug levels in patients receiving high-dose azithromycin for mycobacterial lung disease. Clin Infect Dis. 1997; 24:958-964.

Brown BA, Wallace RJ Jr, Griffith DE, Girard WM. Clarithromycin-induced hepatotoxicity. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1995; 20:1073-1074.

Griffith DE, Brown BA, Girard WM, Wallace RJ Jr. Adverse events associated with high-dose rifabutin in macrolide-containing regimens for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1995; 21:594-598.

Griffith DE, Brown BA, Wallace RJ Jr. Varying dosages of rifabutin affect white blood cell and platelet counts in human immunodeficiency virus–negative patients who are receiving multidrug regimens for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1996; 23:1321-1322.

Griffith DE, Brown-Elliott, Shepherd S, McLarty J, Griffith L, Wallace RJ Jr. Ethambutol ocular toxicity in treatment regimens for Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. 2005; 172:250-253.

Havlir D, Torriani F, Dubé M. Uveitis associated with rifabutin prophylaxis. Ann. Intern Med. 1994; 121:510-512.

Shafran SD, Deschenes J, Miller M, Phillip P, Toma E. Uveitis and pseudo-jaundice during a regimen of clarithromycin, rifabutin, and ethambutol. N. Engl. J. Med. 1994; 330:438-439.

Siegal FP, Eilbott D, Burger H, Gehan K, Davidson B, Kaell AT, Weiser B. Dose-limiting toxicity of rifabutin in AIDS-related complex: syndrome of arthralgia/arthritis. AIDS. 1990; 4:433-441.

Wallace RJ Jr, Brown BA, Griffith DE. Drug intolerance to high-dose clarithromycin among elderly patients. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 1993; 16:215-221.

MAC LUNG DISEASE (NON-AIDS) – DRUG TREATMENT

Ahn CH, Ahn SS, Anderson RA, Murphy DT, Mammo A. A four-drug regimen for initial treatment of cavitary disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1986; 134:438-441.

Brown-Elliott, B. A., Nash KA, Wallace Jr. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, drug resistance mechanisms, and therapy of infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2012; 25:545-582.

Dautzenberg BD, Piperno D, Diot P, Truffot-Pernot C, Chauvin J-P, and the Clarithromycin Study Group of France. Clarithromycin in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium lung infections in patients without AIDS. Chest. 1995; 107:1035-1040.

Davidson PT, Khanijo V, Gable M, Moulding TS. Treatment of disease due to Mycobacterium intracellulare. Rev. Infect. Dis. 1981;3:1052-1059.

Dutt AK, Stead VW. Long-term results of medical treatment in Mycobacterium intracellulare infection. Am. J. Med. 1979;67:449-453.

Field SK, Cowie RL. Treatment of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex lung disease with a macrolide, ethambutol, and clofazimine. Chest. 2003; 124:1482-1486.

Griffith DE, Brown BA, Cegielski P, Murphy DT, Wallace RJ Jr. Early results (at 6 months) with intermittent clarithromycin-including regimens for lung disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2000; 30:288-292.

Griffith DE, Brown BA, Girard WM, Griffith BE, Couch LA, Wallace RJ Jr. Azithromycin-containing regimens for treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2001; 132:1547-1553.

Griffith DE, Brown BA, Murphy DT, Girard WM, Couch LA, Wallace RJ Jr. Initial (6-month) results of three-times-weekly azithromycin in treatment regimens for Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients. J. Infect. Dis. 1998; 178:121-126.

Huang C-C, Wu M-F, Chen H-C, Huang W-C. In vitro activity of aminoglycosides, clofazimine, D-cycloserine and dapsone against 83 Mycobacterium avium complex clinical isolates. J. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect.2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.mii.2017.05.001.v

Kobashi Y, Matsushima T. The effect of combined therapy according to the guidelines for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease. Intern. Med. 2003; 42:670-675.

Martiniano SL, Wagner BD, Levin A, Nick JA, Sagel SD, Daley CL. Safety and effectiveness of clofazimine for primary and refractory nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. Chest.2017; 152:800-809.

Olivier KN, Shaw PA, Glaser TS, Bhattacharyya D, Fleshner M, Brewer CC, Zalewski CK, Folio LR, Siegelman JR, Shallom S, Park IK, Sampaio EP, Zelazny AM, Holland SM, Prevots DR. Inhaled amikacin for treatment of refractory pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. Ann. Am. Thorac. Soc.2014; 11:30-35.

Philley JV, Wallace Jr. RJ, Benwill JL, Taskar V, Brown-Elliott BA, Thakkar F, Aksamit TR, Griffith DE. Preliminary results of bedaquiline as salvage therapy for patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease. Chest.2015; 148:499-506.

Research Committee of the British Thoracic Society. First randomized trial of treatments for pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium avium intracellulare, Mycobacterium malmoense, and Mycobacterium xenopi in HIV negative patients: rifampicin, ethambutol and isoniazid versus rifampicin and ethambutol. Thorax. 2001; 56:167-172..

Research Committee of the British Thoracic Society. Pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare in HIV-negative patients: Five-year follow-up patients receiving standardized treatment. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 2002; 6:628-634.

van Ingen, J., Egelund EF, Levin A, Totten SE, Boeree MJ, Mouton JW, Aarnoutse RE, Heifets LB, Peloquin CA, and Daley CL. 2012. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease treatment. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2012; 186:559-565.

Wallace RJ Jr, Brown BA, Griffith DE, Girard WM, Murphy DT. Clarithromycin regimens for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex. The first 50 patients. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1996; 153:1766-1772.

Wallace RJ Jr, Brown BA, Griffith DE, Girard WM, Murphy DT, Onyi GO, Steingrube VA, Mazurek GH. Initial clarithromycin monotherapy for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex lung disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1994; 149:1335-1341.

ENVIRONMENTAL

De Groote, MA, Pace NR, Fulton K, Falkinham, III JO. Relationships between Mycobacterium isolates from patients with pulmonary mycobacterial infection and potting soils. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2006; 72:7602-76-6.

duMoulin G, Stottmeier K, Pelletier P, Tsang A, Hedley-Whyte J. Concentration of Mycobacterium avium by hospital hot water systems. JAMA. 1988; 260:1599-1601.

Esteban J, García-Coca M. Mycobacterium biofilms. Front. Microbiol.2018; 8:2651.

Falkinham JO. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in the environment. Clin. Chest. Med. 2002; 23:529-515.

Falkinham III JO. The changing pattern of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. Can. J. Infect. Dis. 2003; 14:281-286.

Falkinham III JO. Growth in catheter biofilms and antibiotic resistance of Mycobacterium avium. J. Med. Microbiol.2007; 56:250-254.

Falkinham III JO. Nontuberculous mycobacteria from household plumbing of patients with nontuberculous mycobacteria disease. Emerg. Infect. Dis.2011; 17:419-424.

Falkinham III JO, Iseman MD, de Haas P, van Soolingen D.Mycobacterium avium in a shower linked to pulmonary disease. J. Water Health. 2008; 6:209-213.

Falkinham III JO,Norton CD, LeChevalier MW. Factors influencing numbers of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and other mycobacteria in drinking water distribution systems. App. Environ. Microbiol.2001; 67:1225-1231.

Hedge J, Lamagni T, Moore G, Walker J, Crook D, Chand M. Letter to the Editor: Mycobacterium chimaera isolates from heater-cooler units, United Kingdom. Emerg. Infect. Dis.2017; 23:1227.

Iakhiaeva E, McNulty S, Brown-Elliott BA, Falkinham III JO, Williams MD, Vasireddy R, Wilson RW, Turenne C, Wallace Jr. RJ.Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping of Mycobacterium intracellulare for strain comparison with establishment of a PCR database. J. Clin. Microbiol.2013; 51:409-416.

Iakhiaeva E, Howard S, Brown-Elliott BA, McNulty S, Falkinham III JO, Newman K, Williams M, Kwait R, Lande L, Vasireddy R, Turenne C, Wallace Jr. RJ. Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis of respiratory and household water biofilm isolates of “Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis” with establishment of a PCR database. J. Clin. Microbiol.2016; 54(4):891-901.

Meissner G, Anz W. Sources of Mycobacterium avium-complex infection resulting in human disease. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1977;116:1057-1064.

Nishiuchi Y,Tamaru A, Kitada S, Taguri T, Matsumoto S, Tateishi Y, Yoshimura M, Ozeki Y, Matsumura N, Ogura H, Mackura R. Mycobacterium avium complex organisms predominantly colonize in the bathtub inlets of patients’ bathrooms. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.2009; 62:182-186.

Pelletier P, duMoulin G, Stottmeier K. Mycobacteria in public water supplies: Comparative resistance to chlorine. Microbiol. Sci. 1988; 5:147-148.

Sax H, Bloemberg G, Hasse B, Sommerstein R, Kohler P, Achermann Y, Rössle M, Falk V, Kuster SP, Böttger EC, Weber R.Prolonged outbreak of Mycobacterium chimaera infection after open-chest heart surgery. Clin. Infect. Dis.2015; 61:67-75.61:67-75.

TichenorWS, Thurlow J, McNulty S, Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace Jr. RJ, Falkinham III JO. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in household plumbing as possible cause of chronic rhinosinusitis. Emerg. Infect. Dis.2012; 18:1612-1617.

Tobin-D’Angelo MJ, Blass MA, del Rio C, Halvosa JS, Blumberg HM, Horsburgh CR Jr. Hospital water as a source of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates in respiratory specimens. J. Infect. Dis. 2004; 189:98-104.9:98-104.

von Reyn CF, Maslow JN, Barber TW, Falkinham JO. Persistent colonisation of potable water as a source of Mycobacterium avium infection in AIDS. Lancet. 1994; 343:1137-1141.

vonReyn CF, Waddell RD, Eaton T, Arbeit RD, Maslow JN, Barber TW, Brindle RJ, Gilks CF, Lumio J, Lähdevirta J. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex from water in the United States, Finland, Zaire, and Kenya. J. Clin. Micro. 1993; 1:3227-3230.

Wallace Jr. RJ, Iakhiaeva E, Williams M, Brown-Elliott BA, Vasireddy S, Vasireddy R, Lande L, Peterson D, Sawicki J, Kwait R, Tichenor W, Turenne C, Falkinham III JO.Absence of Mycobacterium intracellulare and the presence of Mycobacterium chimaera in household water and biofilm samples of patients in the U.S. with Mycobacterium avium complex respiratory disease. J. Clin. Microbiol.2013; 51:1747-1752.

EPIDEMIOLOGY

Adjemian J, Olivier KN, Seitz AE, Falkinham III JO, Holland SM, Prevots DR. Spatial clusters of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in the United States. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.2012; 186:553-558.

Falkinham JO. Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Clin Microbiol. Rev. 1996; 9:177-215.

Good RC, Snider DE. Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria in the United States. J. Infect. Dis. 1980; 146:829-833.

Henkle, E, Novosad SA, Shafer S, Hedberg K, Siegel SAR, Ku J, Varley C, Prevots DR, Marras TK, Winthrop KL. Long-term outcomes in a population-based cohort with respiratory nontuberculous mycobacteria isolation. Ann. Am. Thorac. Soc.2017; 14:1120-1128.

Horan KL, Freeman R, Weigel K, Semret M, Pfaller S, Covert TC, van Soolingen D, Leão SC, Behr MA, Cangelosi GA. Isolation of the genome sequence strain Mycobacterium avium 104 from multiple patients over a 17-year period. J. Clin. Microbiol.2006;44:783-789.

Horsburgh CR Jr. Epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium complex. In: Korvick JA, Benson CA (eds), Mycobacterium avium complex Infection: Progress in Research and Treatment. Lung Biol. Health Dis. 1996; 87:1-22.

Horsburgh CR Jr. Epidemiology of disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Semin. Respir. Infect. 1996; 11:244.

Kim S-Y, Lee S-T, Jeong B-H, Jeon K, Kim J-W, Shin SJ, Koh W-J. Clinical significance of mycobacterial genotyping in Mycobacterium avium lung disease in Korea. Intern. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis.2012; 16:1393-1399.

Marras TK, Daley CL. Epidemiology of human pulmonary infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Clin. Chest Med. 2002; 23:553-67.

O’Brien RJ, Geiter LJ, Snider DE. The epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases in the United States: results from a national survey. Am.Rev. Respir. Dis. 1987; 135:1007-1014.

Parker B, Ford M, Gruft H, Falkinham J. Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria. IV. Preferential aerosolization of Mycobacterium intracellulare from natural waters. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1983; 128:652-656.

Spaulding AB, Lai YL, Zelazny AM, Olivier KN, Kadri SS, Prevots DR, Adjemian J.Geographic distribution of nontuberculous mycobacterial species identified among clinical isolates in the United States, 2009-2013. Ann. Am. Thorac. Soc. 2017; 14:1655-1661.

Wolinsky, E. State of the Art: Nontuberculous mycobacteria and associated diseases. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1979; 110:107-159.

HOT TUB LUNG

Aksamit TR. Hot Tub Lung: Infection. inflammation, or both? Seminars in Respiratory Infection. 2003; 18:33-39.

Embil J, Warren P, Yakrus M, Stark R, Corne S, Forrest D, Hershfield E. Pulmonary illness associated with exposure to Mycobacterium avium complex in hot tub water. Chest. 1997; 111:813-816.

Kahana L, Kay M, Yakrus M, Waserman S. Mycobacterium avium complex infection in an immunocompetent young adult related to hot tub exposure. Chest. 1997; 111:242-245.

Khoor A, Leslie K, Tazelaar H, Helmers R, Colby T. Diffuse pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria in immunocompetent people (hot tub lung). Am. J. Clin. Path. 2001; 115-755-762.

Rose C, Martyny J, Huitt G, Iseman M. Hot tub associated granulomatous lung disease from mycobacterial bioaerosols. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2000; 161:A730.

Yasin H, Mangano WE, Malhotra P, Farooq A, Mohamed H. Hot tub lung: A diagnostic challenge. Cureus.2017; 9(8):e1617. DOI 10.7759/cureus.1617.

IMMUNOLOGY

Boehm U, Klamp T, Groot M, Howard JC. Cellular responses to interferon-gamma. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 1997; 15:749.

Dorman SE, Holland SM. Mutation in the signal-transducing chain of the interferon-gamma receptor and susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. J. Clin. Invest. 1998; 101:2364.v

Dorman SE, Picard C, Lammas D, Heyne K, van Dissel JT, Baretto R, Rosenzweig SD, Newport M, Levin M, Roesler J, Kumararatne D, Casanova JL, Holland SM., Clinical features of dominant and recessive interferon gamma receptor 1 deficiencies. Lancet. 2004; 364:2113–2121.

Fieschi C, Dupuis S, Catherinot E, et al. Low penetrance, broad resistance, and favorable outcome of interleukin 12 receptor beta1 deficiency: medical and immunological implications. J. Exp. Med. 2003; 197:527-535.

Gallin JI, Farber JM, Holland SM, Nutman TB. Interferon-gamma in the management of infectious diseases. Ann. Intern. Med. 1995; 123:216.

Hibiya K, Miyagi K, Tamayose M, Nabeya D, Kinjo T, Takeshima S, Ikemiyagi N, Yamada K, Fujita A, Hashioka H, Kami W, Inamine M, Shibahara D, Nakamura H, Furugen M, Haranaga S, Higa F, Tateyama M, Fujita J. Do infections with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex precede sweet’s syndrome? A case report and literature review. Int. J. Mycobacteriol. 2017; 6:336-343.

Holland SM, Dorman SE, Kwon A, Pitha-Rowe IF, Frucht DM, Gerstberger SM, Noel GJ, Vesterhus P, Brown MR, Fleisher TA. Abnormal regulation of interferon- gamma, interleukin-12, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human interferon-gamma receptor 1 deficiency. J. Infect. Dis. 1998; 178:1095.

Philley JV, Kannan A, Griffith DE, Devine MS, Benwill JL, Wallace Jr. RJ, Brown-Elliott BA, Thakkar F, Taskar V, Fox JG, Alqaid A, Bains H, Gupta S. Dasgupta S. Exosome secretome and mediated signaling in breast cancer patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. Oncotarget. 2017; February 1, doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.14964.

Picard C, Fieschi C, Altare F, et al. Inherited interleukin-12 deficiency: IL12B genotype and clinical phenotype of 13 patients from six kindreds. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2002; 70:336-348.

Rosenzweig SD, Dorman SE, Uzel G, Shaw S, Scurlock A, Brown MR, Buckley RH,Holland SM. A novel mutation in IFN-gamma receptor 2 with dominant negative activity: biological consequences of homozygous and heterozygous states. J. Immunol. 2004; 173:4000-4008.

Rubin BK, Henke MO. Immunomodulatory activity and effectiveness of macrolides in chronic airway disease. Chest. 2004; 125;70S-78S.

Ruenheid S, Pinner E, Desjardins M, Gros P. Natural resistance to infection with intra-cellular pathogens: the Nramp1 protein is recruited to the membrane of the phagosome. J. Exp. Med. 1997; 185:717.

LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS / SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING

Ahrens PS, Giese B, Klausen J, Inglis NF. Two markers, IS9OI-IS9O2 and p40 identified by PCR and by using monoclonal antibodies in Mycobacterium avium strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1995; 33:1049-1053.

Alexander DC, Vasireddy R, Vasireddy S, Philley JV, Brown-Elliott BA, Perry BJ, Griffith DE, Benwill JL, Cameron ADS, Wallace Jr. RJ. Emergence of mmpT5 variants during bedaquiline treatment of Mycobacterium intracellulare lung disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2017; 55:574-584.

Beggs ML, Stevanova R, Eisenach KD. Species identification of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates by a variety of molecular techniques. J. Clin. Microbiol.2000; 38:508-512.

Ben Salah I, Cayrou C, Raoult D, Drancourt M.Mycobacterium marseillense sp. nov., Mycobacterium timonense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense sp. nov., members of the Mycobacterium avium complex. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.2009; 59:2803-2808.

Brown-Elliott BA, Iakhiaeva E, Griffith DE, Woods GL, Stout JE, Wolfe CR, Turenne CY, Wallace Jr. RJ.In vitro activity of amikacin against isolates of Mycobacterium avium complex with proposed MIC breakpoints and finding of a 16S rRNA gene mutation in treated isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol.2013; 51:3389-3394, ERRATUM 2014; 52:1311.

Brown-Elliott BA, Nash KA, Wallace Jr. RJ.Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, drug resistance mechanisms, and therapy of infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria. Clin. Microbiol. Rev.2012; 25:545-582.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Susceptibility testing of mycobacteria, nocardia, and other aerobic actinomycetes; Approved Standard-Second Edition. CLSI.2011; M24-A2.

Dauchy F-A, Dégrange S, Charron A, Dupon M, Xin Y, Bébéar C, Maugein J. Variable-number tandem-repeat markers for typing Mycobacterium intracellulare strains isolates in humans. BMC Microbiology.2010; 10:93-99.

Griffith DE, Adjemian J, Brown-Elliott BA, Philley JV, Prevots DR, Gaston C, Olivier KN, Wallace Jr. RJ.Semiquantitative culture analysis during therapy for Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med.2015; 192:754-760.

Guerrero C, Bernasconi D, Burki T, Bodmer A, Telenti. A novel insertion element from Mycobacterium avium. lS124.5 is a specific target for analysis of strain relatedness. J.Clin. Microbiol. 1995; 33:304-307.

Iakhiaeva E, McNulty S, Brown-Elliott BA, Falkinham, III JO, Williams MD, Vasireddy R, Wilson RW, Turenne C, Wallace Jr RJ.Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping of Mycobacterium intracellulare for strain comparison with establishment of a PCR database. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2013 51:409-416.

Inagaki T, Nishimori K, Yagi T, Ichikawa K, Moriyama M, Nakagawa T, Shibayama T, Uchiya K-I, Nikai T, Ogawa K.Comparison of a variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) method for typing Mycobacterium avium with mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-VNTR and IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing. J. Clin. Microbiol.2009; 47:2156-2164.

Inderlied CB, Young LS, Yamada JK.Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates to antimycobacterial agents by various methods. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.1987; 31:1697-1702.

Johansen TB,Djønne B, Jensen MR, Olsen I. Distribution of IS1311 and IS1245 in Mycobacterium avium subspecies revisited. J. Clin. Microbiol.2005; 43:2500-2502.

Jost KC, Dunbar DF, Barth SS, Headley VL, Elliott LB. Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex directly from smear-positive sputum specimens and BACTEC 12B cultures by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and computer-driven pattern recognition models. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1995; 33:1270-1277.

Kim B-J, Choi B-S, Choi I-Y, Lee J-H, Chun J, Hong S-H, Kook Y-H, Kimj B-J. Complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium intracellulare clinical strain MOTT-36Y, belonging to the INT5 genotype. J. Bacteriol. 2012; 194:4141-4142.

Kim B-J, Math RK, Jeon CO, Yu HK, Park YG, Kook YH, Kim BJ.Mycobacterium yongonense sp. nov., a slow-growing non-chromogenic species closely related to Mycobacterium intracellulare.Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.2013; 63:192-199.

Murcia MI, Tortoli E, Menendez MC, Palenque E, Garcia MJ.Mycobacterium colombiense sp. nov., a novel member of the Mycobacterium avium complex and description of MAC-X as a new ITS genetic variant. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.2006; 56:2049-2054.

Novi C, Rindi L, Lari N, Garzelli C.Molecular typing of Mycobacterium avium isolates by sequencing of the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer and comparison with IS1245-based fingerprinting. J. Med. Microbiol.2000; 49:1091-1095.

Pfyffer GE, Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ Jr. Mycobacterium: General characteristics, isolation and staining procedures. In: Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th edition, Patrick R. Murray, editor. ASM Press, Washington, DC, 2003; 36:532-559.

Radomski N, Thibault VC, Karoui C, de Cruz K, Cochard T, Gutiérrez C, Supply P, Biet F, Boschiroli ML. Determination of genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium avium subspecies from human and animal origins by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat and IS1311 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing methods. J. Clin. Microbiol.2010; 48:1026-1034.

Stout JE, Hopkins GW, McDonald JR, Quinn A, Hamilton CD, Reller LB, Frothingham R.Association between 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer sequence groups of Mycobacterium avium complex and pulmonary disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2008; 46:2790-2793.

Tatano Y, Sano C, Yasumoto K, Shimizu T, Sato K, et al. Correlation between variable-number tandem-repeat-based genotypes and drug susceptibility in Mycobacterium avium isolates. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.2012; 31:445-454.

Tortoli E, Rindi L, Garcia MJ, Chiaradonna P, Dei R, Garzelli C, Kroppenstedt RM, Lari N. Mattei R, Mariottini A, Mazzarelli G, Murcia MI, Nanetti A, Piccoli P, Scarparo C.Proposal to elevate the genetic variant MAC-A, included in the Mycobacterium avium complex, to species rank as Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.2004; 54:1277-1285.

Turenne CY, Wallace Jr. RJ, Behr MA. Mycobacterium avium in the postgenomic era. Clin. Microbiol. Rev.2007; 20:205-229.

van Ingen J,Boeree MJ, Kösters K, Wieland A, Tortoli E, Dekhuijzen PNR, van Soolingen D.Proposal to elevate Mycobacterium avium complex ITS sequevars MAC-Q to Mycobacterium vulneris sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2009; 59:2277-2282.

van Ingen J,Boeree MJ, van Soolingen D, Mouton JW.Resistance mechanisms and drug susceptibility testing of nontuberculous mycobacteria. Drug Resist. Updat.2012; 15:149-161.

van Soolingen D,Bauer J, Ritacco V, Cardoso-Leão SC, Pavlik I, Vincent V, Rastogi N, Gori A, Bodmer T, Garzelli C, Garcia MJ.IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing of Mycobacterium avium isolates: Proposal for standardization. J Clin Microbiol. 1998; 36:3051-3054.

Vincent V, Elliott BA, Jost KC Jr., Wallace RJ Jr. Mycobacterium phenotypic and genotypic identification. In manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th edition, Vol. 1, PR Murray, ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC, 2003; 37:560-584.2003; 37:560-584.

Woods GL, Williams-Bouyer N, Wallace Jr. RJ, Brown-Elliott BA, Witebsky FG, Conville PS, Plaunt M, Hall G, Aralar P, Inderlied C. Multisite reproducibility of results obtained by two broth dilution methods for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium avium complex. J. Clin. Microbiol.2003; 41:327-631.

RADIOLOGY

Hartman TE, Swensen SJ, Williams DE. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex: evaluation with CT. Radiology. 1993; 187:23- 26.

Iseman MD, Buschman DL, Ackerson LM. Pectus excavatum and scoliosis. Thoracic anomalies associated with pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1991; 144:914-916.

Primack SL, Logan PM, Hartman TE, Lee KS, Muller NL. Pulmonary tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare: a comparison of CT findings. Radiology. 1995; 194:413-417.

Tanaka E, Amitani R, Niimi A, et al. Yield of computed tomography and bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1997; 155:2041-2046.

SURGERY

Corpe RF. Surgical management of pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. Rev. Infect Dis. 1981; 3:1064-1067.

Fujita J, Ohtsuki Y, Suemitsu I, et al. Pathological and radiological changes in resected lung specimens in Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex disease. Eur. Respir. J. 1999; 13:535-540

Moran JF, Alexander LG, Stauh EW, Young WG, Sealy WC. Long-term results of pulmonary resection for a typical mycobacterial disease. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 1983; 35:597-604.

Nelson KG, Griffith DE, Brown BA, Wallace RJ Jr. Results of operation in Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare lung disease. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 1998; 66:325-330.

Nelson KG, Griffith DE, Wallace RJ Jr. Pulmonary mycobacterial disease. The role of surgical resection. Clin. Pulm. Med. 2004; 11:355-362

Pomerantz M, Denton JR, Huitt GA, Brown JM, Powell LA, Iseman MD. Resection of the right middle lobe and lingula for mycobacterial infection. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 1996; 62:990-993.

Pomerantz ML, Madsen M, Gohle, Iseman M. Surgical management of resistant mycobacterial tuberculosis and other mycobacterial pulmonary infections. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 1991; 52:1108-1112.

Shiraishi Y, Fukushima K, Komatsu H, Kurashima A. Early pulmonary resection for localized Mycobacterium avium complex disease. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 1998; 66:183-186.

Shiraishi Y, Nakajima Y, Takasuna K, Hanaoka T, Katsuragi N, Konno H. Surgery for Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease in the clarithromycin era. Eur. J. Cardio-Thor. Surg. 2002; 21:314-318.